1. WHATSOEVER God, who is the God of truth, hath engaged himself by promise to do, the same he undoubtedly hath willed, and will accordingly perform.

2. There is no son of Adam to whom God hath not promised that, if he shall believe in Christ, repent, and persevere, he shall be saved.

3. This general and undoubted will of God must be equally proclaimed to all men through the world, without exception, and ought to be so received and believed as it is by him published and revealed .

4. All men, within the pale of the church especially, have from the mercy of God such common helps towards this belief and salvation, as that the neglect thereof makes any of them justly guilty of their own condemnation.

5. Besides the general will of God, he hath eternally willed and decreed to give a special and effectual grace to those that are predestinate according to the good pleasure of his will; whereby they do actually believe, obey, and persevere, that they may be saved: so as the same God, that would have all men to be saved if they believe and be not wanting to his Spirit, hath decreed to work powerfully in some whom he hath particularly chosen, that they shall believe, and not be wanting to his Spirit in whatsoever shall be necessary for their salvation.

6. It is not the prevision of faith, or any other grace or act of man, whereupon this decree of God is grounded; but the mere and gracious good will and pleasure of God, from all eternity appointing to save those whom he hath chosen in Christ, as the head and foundation of the elect.

7. This decree of God s election is absolute, and unchangeable, and from everlastings.

8. God doth not either actually damn or appoint any soul to damnation, without the consideration and respect of sin.



1. God, pitying the woeful condition of man, fallen by his free will into sin and perdition, sent his own Son, that he should give himself as a ransom for the sins of the whole world: so as there is no living soul that may not be truly and seriously invited, by his faith to take hold of the forgiveness of his sins and everlasting life, by the virtue of this death of Christ, with certain assurance of obtaining both.

2. Upon this infinite merit of Christ s death is grounded that universal promise and covenant of the gospel, offering remission and salvation to all men through the whole world, if they be not wanting to the receipt thereof.

3. Notwithstanding this infinite merit of Christ s death, the fruit arid benefit thereof doth not accrue to all men; but to those only who do apply the virtue of his death by faith.

4. Those, within the church especially, that do not reap this benefit by the death of Christ, perish manifestly by their own default; forasmuch as God hath ordained that, wheresoever the gracious promise of the gospel shall be preached, there shall be and is withal ordinarily so much supernatural grace offered together with the outward means, as may justly convince the impenitent and unbelieving of a willful neglect, if not a contemptuous rejection.

5. Besides this general promise of the gospel, God hath decreed to give a special, more abundant, and effectual grace unto his elect; whereby they may be enabled certainly and infallibly to apply unto themselves the benefit of Christ’s death; and do accordingly believe, and persevere, and attain salvation

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Concerning the extent of Christ’s death, the Belgic opponents profess to rest willingly in those words of Musculus: Omnium peccata tulit, &c: “He hath borne the sins of all men, if we consider his sacrifice according to the virtue of it in itself, and think that no man is excluded from this grace but he that refuses it. So God loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son, to the end that whosoever believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life; John iii. 16. But if we respect those which do so believe and are saved; so he hath borne only the sins of many.” Thus he.1 Neither will the opponents yield any less. What is this other than the explication of that usual distinction which we have, whether from St. Austin or his scholar Prosper, of the greatness of the price, and the propriety of the redemption?2 that equal to all, this pertaining but to some. That common word seems enough to the Belgic opponents: “The price of Christ’s blood is sufficient to save all:” and if this may serve their turn, who can grudge it? Contrarily, while they do willingly grant, that in respect of the efficacy of power, Christ died not for all; and that Christ was given only with this intention of his Father, that the world should no otherwise be saved by his Son than through faith; what need we urge more?

Both will grant that the apothecary’s shop hath drugs enough for the cure of all diseases, which yet can profit none but those that are willing to make use of them. Both will accord in this position, which B. Overall commends, as in effect the words of worthy Mr. Calvin: So Christ died for all, that there is no man, if his incredulity did not hinder him, but were redeemed by his precious blood: neither is there, as is willingly confessed by the defendants, any man living to whom it may be singularly said, Christ died not for thee.35 Seeing therefore whole mankind doth but result of singular and individual men, why should we fear to say unto all, that Christ died for them?

Now what should we stand upon a niggardly contestation of words, where so much real truth is mutually yielded? Who can think there can be any peril to that soul who believes thus much? The rest to the schools.

But whatever have been the nice scruples and explications of foreign divines, we have no such cause of strife, if we admit that which our learned bishop commends for the voice of the church of England! who, having laid down the two extreme opinions of the opposite parts, brings in the church of England as sweetly moderating betwixt both: that she, supposing the death of Christ for all men, and God’s conditional intention of the general grace of his evangelical promise, adds moreover the special intention of God to apply the benefit of Christ’s death, by a more abundant and effectual grace, absolutely, certainly, and infallibly, to the elect alone, without any diminution of that his sufficient and common favour; which as we see so yields to both parts what they desire, as that in the meantime it puts upon both what they are not greatly forward to admit: yet that which it puts upon them may be admitted without any complaint, except perhaps of excess of charity; and that which is yielded is abundantly enough for peace.

Joseph Hall, “Via Media: The Way of Peace,” in The Works of the Right Reverent Joseph Hall, (New York, Ames press, 1969), 291-492 and 510-11.  [Some reformatting; some spelling modernized; Latin footnotes not excluded, except for three relevant notes; and underlining mine.] [Note: Hall was one of the English delegates to Dort, until illness forced him to return to England.]


1[Musculi Comment, in Esaiam. [liii. 5.] Basil. 1570. pp. 705,6.]

2Magnitudinem pretii distinguit a proprietate redemptionis. [“Quod ergo ad magnitudinem et potentiam pretii,sanguis Christi est redemptio totius mundi, &c. Prosper! Reap, ad Object. Vincent. Opp. August, vol. x. App. col. 208.]

3Nulli hominum aingulariter denun- turn pro ipso mortuum non esse. Ibid. Iciatur, [neque ulli denunciatur] Chris- p. 155.

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