Mr. Calamy: I am far from universal redemption in the Arminian sense; but that that I hold is in the sense of our divines in the Synod of Dort,  that Christ did pay a price for all, absolute intention for the elect, conditional intention for the reprobate in case they do believe, that all men should be salvabiles, non obstante lapsu Adami . . . that Jesus Christ did not only die sufficiently for all, but God did intend, in giving of Christ, and Christ in giving Himself, did intend to put all men in a state of salvation in case they do believe. Alex Mitchell and John Struthers, Minutes of the Sessions of the Westminster Assembly of Divines (London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1874), 152. C.f., Chad B. Van Dixhoorn’s Reforming the Reformation: Theological Debate at the Westminster Assembly, 1643-1652, 6:202-209.1 [Some reformatting; original footnote not included; this footnote mine; and underlining mine.]


If we were to take these statements just as they stand, we should probably be obliged to say that Calamy’s position was characterized by the following points:

1. It denied the Arminian doctrine of a universal redemption for all men alike, without exception, on condition of faith, which faith is to be man’s own act by virtue of powers renewed through a universal gift of sufficient grace.

2. It denied equally the Amyraldian doctrine of a universal redemption for all men alike, without exception, on condition of faith, which faith, however, is the product of special grace given to the elect alone, so that only the elect can fulfil the condition.

3. It affirmed a double intention on Christ’s part in His work of redemptiondeclaring that He died absolutely for the elect and conditionally for the reprobate. Theologically his position, which has its closest affinities with the declarations of the English Divines at Dort, was an improvement upon the Amyraldian; but logically it was open, perhaps, to all the objections which were fatal to it as well as to others arising from its own lack of consistency. B. B. Warfield, “The Westminster Assembly and its Work,” in The Works of Benjamine B. Warfield, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1981), 6:139.2 [Some reformatting, footnote mine; and underlining mine.]

[Note: Calamy was the principle leader of the English Presbyterians until his death.]


1Dixhoorn’s minutes are the same as Mitchell’s, though with extra textual notations.

2Much (most?) of what Warfield has to say on this topic ranges from inaccurate to strange. However, he confirms that Calamy did hold to a twofold intentionality of God.

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